A growing number of publishers are adopting “hybrid models” where journal articles are made Open Access on payment of an Article Processing Charge despite the journal being part of a subscription bundle.
This is seen by some publishers as a transition method from subscription-based access to Open Access.
- A hybrid model means that the basic business model of the journal is the subscription model though publishers offer authors the possibility to pay for Open Access (sometimes called the “Open Access option”)
- The term “Double Dipping” is used because publishers receive money twice: the subscriptions are still paid by the universities and authors pay for Open Access
- Hybrid journals, on average, cost more than full Gold OA journals. For example, hybrids are over 50% higher than the mean of fully OA journals from non-subscription publishers. Ref: Monitoring the Transition to Open Access.
Hybrid as transition model to Open Access
- Some publishers have developed new models in Europe like Springer with Springer Compact. Here, the subscribing organisation pays for reading and publishing, including Open Access for one annual fee.