In this section we highlight some projects we believe to be important for the development of Open Access.
MESUR has collected multiple years of very large- scale scholarly usage data to analyze patterns of scholarly activity and perform a comprehensive survey of possible impact metrics.The usage data were obtained from some of the world’s most significant publishers, institutional consortia and aggregators in the period 2006-2008, although collection has continued and is projected to extend the range of MESUR’s data from 2006 to the present. At this point the MESUR database contains more than 1 billion usage events, pertaining to nearly 50 million documents and about 100,000 identifiable serials.
The analysis resulted in a map of science that highlights the relations between a multitude of scientific domains according to large- scale patterns of user clickstreams  and a map of metrics that shows the diversity and variety possible impact metrics . The latter map of metrics, based on the statistical technique of principal component analysis, shows that present citation-based metrics represent only one of many possible facets of the general notion of scholarly impact.
The outcomes of the MESUR project suggest the feasibility of impact assessment systems that can complement present citation analysis to address some of its potential biases, such as its focus on a particular type of publication, significant publication delays and domain-specific citation and publication practices.
A three-year project funded under FP7, OpenAIRE (Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe) unites 38 partners from 27 European countries in order to implement Open Access on a pan-European scale.OpenAIRE aims at supporting the implementation of Open Access in Europe, providing the means to promote and realise the widespread adoption of the Open Access Policy, as set out by the ERC Scientific Council Guidelines for Open Access and the Open Access pilot launched by the European Commission in August 2008.
PEER (Publishing and the Ecology of European Research), supported by the EC eContentplus programme, will investigate the effects of the large-scale, systematic depositing of authors’ final peer-reviewed manuscripts(so called Green Open Access or stage-two research output) on reader access, author visibility, and journal viability, as well as on the broader ecology of European research.
The project is a collaboration between publishers, repositories and researchers and will last from 2008 to 2011. The aim of PEER is to build a substantial body of evidence, by developing an “observatory” to monitor the effects of systematic archiving over time.
STM, the ESF, Gottingen State and University Library, the Max Planck Society and INRIA will collaborate on PEER, supported by the SURF Foundation and the University of Bielefeld, which will contribute the expertise of the EU-funded DRIVER project. The National library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) is also participating.
SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics), a new model for OA publishing whereby HEP funding agencies and libraries,which today purchase journal subscriptions to implicitly support the peer-review service, federate to explicitly cover its cost, while publishers make the electronic versions of their journals free to read. Authors are not directly charged to publish their articles OA.
Based in London and operating internationally, Knowledge Unlatched is piloting a global library consortium model for coordinating the shared, up-front payment of the fixed costs of publishing open access scholarly books. Participating publishers make titles selected by members of the Knowledge Unlatched library consortium available online on open access license. The pilot includes several major academic publishers and university libraries from around the world. Details of the project can be found at: www.knowledgeunlatched.org